Earth sciences, geography, environment, planning




Earth sciences Volcanology & seismology Geology & the lithosphere Soil science, sedimentology




Geological surface processes (geomorphology) Historical geology Petrology Stratigraphy




Geochemistry Economic geology Hydrology & the hydrosphere Oceanography (seas)




Limnology (freshwater) Meteorology & climatology Palaeontology Geography




Physical geography & topography Arid zones, deserts Grasslands, heaths, prairies, tundra Wetlands, swamps, fens




Forests, rainforests Deltas, estuaries, coastal regions Coral reefs Mountains




Human geography Economic geography Political geography Regional geography




Biogeography Geographical discovery & exploration Geographical maps (specialist) Cartography, map-making & projections




Geographical information systems (GIS) & remote sensing Geodesy & surveying for maps & charts The environment Environmentalist thought & ideology




Environmentalist, conservationist & Green organizations Applied ecology Biodiversity Environmental policy & protocols




Environmental management Drought & water supply Food security & supply Energy resources




Waste management Conservation of the environment Conservation of wildlife & habitats Endangered species & extinction of species




Pollution & threats to the environment Deforestation Climate change Nuclear issues




Natural disasters Social impact of environmental issues Sustainability Regional & area planning



Urban & municipal planning Rural planning Transport planning & policy